There are many directions in the development of regenerative medicine, including proteomic research, research with the use of cell technologies, tissue engineering, genetic engineering, biomaterials creation technologies, 3D bioprinting, etc. In addition, new directions appear from time to time, such as mitochondrial technologies, femtosecond or subcellular surgery.
An effective alternative to stem cells and cell-based treatment methods is the use of stem cell free drugs that have a similar effect due to the bioactive components in them. Unlike cell-based products, these drugs are free from many risks: they do not lose efficacy in case of long-term storage, it is easier to assess drug kinetics and "drop-out" risks when using them, they do not have the problem of cell transformation, and their market availability is also significantly higher.
Therefore, some directions of the regenerative medicine have already become widely available and can improve the life quality, extend the working age, and reduce the costs of long-term treatment of patients with chronic diseases. However, "...the research and desire for constant renewal are deeply embedded in the DNA..." and the emergence of new methods and drugs will constantly take place.